Technical text is a type of written technical communication, which is used in a number of technical and professional fields, such as, software, architecture, chemistry, aviation, engineering, biotechnology, etc.
Technical text is a text of special importance that operate in a specific system. All texts in the system are interrelated and for proper interpretation and development it is important to be aware of the existence of other texts in a system. Therefore, the technical text cannot be considered separately, since the elements of the system must be homogeneous in nature, that is, texts (regardless of status) must be traceable to each other not to violate the logical chain.
- Technical documents are the following:
- technical characteristics of components (substances) or parts,
- testing procedures,
- standards, the documentation of quality management system,
- technical information contained in laws,
- technical regulations or recommendations,
- directives, etc..
In the above mentioned, one may notice that some of the texts or documents are compulsory that is information specified in laws, technical regulations and recommendations, and the others: testing procedures, standards, the requirements of quality management system can be referred to in the laws or technical regulations, and the rest should be elaborated in accordance with the laws, technical regulations and standards. This resembles a chain where the starting point is laws and/or technical regulations and the rest must be in compliance with one another. In order to ensure a uniform and right interpretation and translation of these texts, it is necessary to preserve traceability in this chain. So the knowledge of the hierarchy of technical documentation is a necessity in translation as it is the first source of intertextuality, comparison and understanding of the given text and is not the last phase for a translator. Note that in order to create a relevant final product in the target language the translator must be aware of the documentation hierarchy in both working languages.
In order to obtain a competent translation the meaning of the original text should be transfered according to the rules of the linguistic system of the target language and instructions received for the execution of the project. Correspondance of terms with the system of terminology and their uniform use during translation is of great importance, as well as the complience of grammatical, syntactical, spelling, punctuation rules which should correspond to the client's stylistic principles.
Medical text translation
In order to translate medical texts adequately the translator should have extensive knowledge in the field of medicine and be able to navigate in massive amount of modern medical terminology. The main peculiarity of medical text translation is the richness of medical terminology which is continuously enriched with terminology of new developing branches such as radiology, immunology and oncology with their new diagnostic and treatment methods.
A particular challenge for medical translations is a problem of synonyms. The number of synonyms in medical terminology is impressive. Sometimes, the same concept may be expressed with several words. Medical translator must be able to distinguish between synonyms, in order to choose the correct term for the given situation, for example doctors prefer using specialized jargon, but with patients they use simpler terminology for explanations.
It is impossible to ignore numerous professional phrases - "cliché", which the translator must be able to recognize and translate the same persistent clichés, without which communication on a professional level will be difficult. Thus, the complexity of medical translation is a huge and rapidly growing vocabulary of medicine, the abundance of synonyms and idiomatic professional medical language.
Legal text translation
One of the pecularities of legal translation is that the legal document should be translated in accordance with the legal system of the country it was drawn up. Legal wording and specific terms reflect the characteristics of legal system of its country. But the translated texts are intended for the reader of another country, so the translation should be made accordingly. It is a difficult task for a translator since original lexical equivalents can sometimes be absent in the target language. When translating legal documents the translator should consider that the texts in the original language often depends on the cultural and mental characteristics of that country, and in the case of literal translation, the meaning inclosed in the text will be partly lost. Therefore, the translator should equally deal with the legal right of his own country and the country of the target language.
Depending on the type of translated documents, we can distinguish the following types of translation:
1. translation of personal documents,
2. translation of administrative documents,
3. translation of procedural documents,
4. translation of legal acts and regulations, etc.
Economic text translation
The collaboration with foreign partners, involves careful management of financial documents, and professional economic translation is the integral part of successful external economic activity. The quality of the translation characterizes the professionalism of the staff and the reliability of the partnership. The texts of economic nature are:
- accounting documents,
- audit reports,
- marketing studies,
- research papers,
- business plans,
- performance reports, etc.
Note that the banking and financial documents are documents of strict accountability, and the specific information contained in such documents is an additional responsibility for the translator. Even the minimal error in translation can lead to very serious consequences.
The characteristics of the translation of economic texts is that the translator must be accurate and pay attention to detail, as well as must master two working languages for special purposes (economic) and be perfectly familiar with terminology. In order to translate economic texts correctly, one must have not only background knowledge in the basics of economy and written statements, including official financial documents, but also to know the basic requirements for the management of financial reporting in different countries.
We produce translated economic texts which reflect the content of the original adequately and accurately.
Editing implies accomplishment by assessing the translation for register and respect for the conventions of the domain in question. Editor carries out a monolingual review to assess the suitability of the translation for the agreed purpose and recommend corrective measures. Editor should be the professional of the given sphere in the target language.
Adaptation is a creation of a text that the reader can understand fully, without any use of other sources. Translating socio-cultural, psychological and social differences between speakers of different languages are aligned, adjusted to exclude the loss of information.
When working with a text it is necessary to know when the text was written. Science and technology evolves rapidly, and sometimes one and the same term in different periods can distinguish different concepts, and vice versa, one concept can be expressed by different terms. That is why the factor of time should be taken into account.
Though it is sometimes difficult to draw the limits between translation and localization, in general localization addresses significant, non-textual components of products or services. In addition to translation (and, therefore, grammar and spelling issues that vary from place to place where the same language is spoken), the localization process might include adapting graphics; adopting local currencies; using proper format for date and time, addresses, and phone numbers applicable to the location; the choices of colors; and many other details, including rethinking the physical structure of a product. All these changes aim to recognize local sensitivities, avoid conflict with local culture, customs, common habits, and enter the local market by merging into its needs and desires. For example, localization aims to offer country-specific websites of the same company or different editions of a book depending on where it is published.
Creating and updating the terminology database
Terminological work does not mean only automatic translation of terms, but also an update of terminological database, which will help translators in their work in future, as well as will promote to the uniformity and harmonization of the terminology systems.